$15 federal minimum wage: Who’s for it, who’s against it, what’s next? – CNET

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Will minimum wage workers get a pay raise? 


Sarah Tew/CNET

The $1.9 trillion COVID-19 relief bill is out of committee as of Monday, bringing it one step closer to a vote in the House of Representatives. Included in the bill are additional provisions to help Americans suffering financially from the pandemic such as a third stimulus check, an extension to the $400 weekly unemployment bonus and a federal minimum wage increase to $15 an hour. It’s still too early to say if it will pass for not. 

During a CNN town hall on Feb. 16, President Joe Biden confirmed his support for the pay hike. 

“Here’s the deal: It’s about doing it gradually. We’re at $7.25 an hour. No one should work 40 hours a week and live in poverty,” he said. “So let’s say you said you’re going to increase the minimum wage from $7.25 an hour, between now and the year 2025, to $12 an hour, to $13 — you double someone’s pay and the impact on business would be absolutely diminished … and it would generate economic growth.” 

However, in a call with mayors and governors the week prior, he was unsure if it would get passed at all saying it “doesn’t look like we can do it,” according to a report from Politico Thursday.

Sen. Joe Manchin, a Democrat from West Virginia, opposes the jump to $15 an hour. He suggests amending the COVID relief bill to increase the wage to $11 an hour. 

Biden’s American Rescue Plan, which has the third stimulus check, extended unemployment benefits and money for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, passed in the House Budget Committee in a 19 to 16 vote. It still has to go through the Rules Committee before it can go up for a vote in the House. Once it passes in the House, it will then go to the Senate for a vote and then to Biden for his signature. Expectations are for the bill to be signed into law before the enhanced unemployment benefits expire on March 14.

Though poll after poll shows that a majority of Americans support the higher wage, there’s still strong opposition to the increase in Congress, which could prolong the fight. We’re going to answer key questions about who the minimum wage would apply to, how the timeline would work, what happens if it isn’t in the next stimulus package and where the situation stands today. 

How much would the federal minimum wage increase every year?

Biden’s plan calls for an increase to the federal minimum wage between now and 2025, and to end the “tipped minimum wage” (for people whose income is based largely on tips, like restaurant servers) and subminimum wage for people with disabilities. Workers who receive at least $30 in tips a month qualify for the “tipped wage,” which is split between a $2.13 minimum cash wage and a $5.13 maximum tip credit with both combining to $7.25. 

According to the Fair Labor Standards Act, certain groups qualify for a wage below the minimum, which is currently $4.25. This includes student workers, those under the age of 20 and workers with a physical or intellectual disability. 

While legislation is required to raise the national minimum wage, Biden can increase the wage for federal workers via executive order. On Jan. 22, he signed an order to have the Office of Personnel Management provide recommendations for a $15 an hour wage for federal workers, as a starting point.

The Raise the Wage Act of 2021 in the House and Senate lays out how the gradual increase will look from now until 2027. Here’s a breakdown of how the bill would affect the minimum wage, the tipped wage, the youth wage for workers under the age of 20 and the 14(c) subminimum wage for workers with disabilities.

Minimum wage raise proposal by year (Raise the Wage Act)

Minimum wage Tipped wage Youth wage 14(c) wage
Current $7.25 $2.13 $4.25 $4.25
2021 $9.50 $4.95 $6.00 $5.00
2022 $11.00 $6.95 $7.75 $7.50
2023 $12.50 $8.95 $9.50 $10.00
2024 $14.00 $10.95 $11.25 $12.50
2025 $15.00 $12.95 $13.00 $15.00
2026 $15.00 $14.95 $14.75 $15.00
2027 $15.00 $15.00 $15.00 $15.00

What’s the current federal minimum wage? Is it the same in every state?

The federal minimum wage for $7.25 an hour was decided in 2009. States and cities, however, can dictate their own hourly minimum, based on local economics, for example. Washington has the highest among the states at $13.69, and Seattle is the major city with the top minimum wage of $16.69 for most workers, beginning Jan. 1, 2021. 

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A minimum wage raise would happen gradually over the course of years.


Sarah Tew/CNET

Why raise the minimum wage over five years instead of all at once? 

Raising the federal minimum wage all at once could create the risk of bankrupting small businesses by requiring them to immediately double each employee’s pay. A gradual increase also gives employers and the economy an opportunity to catch up to changes in ways more prone to keeping pace with inflation. 

Biden and other backers of the $15 national minimum wage will likely need to address it in a bill or package that’s separate from Biden’s $1.9 billion American Rescue Plan. The Senate voted 99-1 on an amendment to not raise the wage during the pandemic, which had the support of Sen. Bernie Sanders, the Senate Budget Committee chairman.

“I will support this amendment because nobody is talking about doubling the federal minimum wage during the pandemic,” Sen. Sanders said on Feb. 5. “We’re talking about gradually phasing it in over a five-year period.”

Although the pay increase wasn’t included in the package, the vote to prevent wages from going up during the pandemic was nonbinding, which means it could be added at a later date. 

Biden reiterated this gradual phase-in during his town hall Feb. 16

What are the obstacles to raising the minimum wage to $15 an hour? 

Opponents of the minimum wage in both the House and Senate cite several issues with raising the wage to $15 an hour. The most common reasons cited are the potential for job losses, putting a strain on small businesses and an increase in the price of goods. 

Raising the hourly wage to $15 would result in an average of 1.4 million jobs lost over the course of four years, according to a report from the Congressional Budget Office released on Feb. 8 analyzing the Raise the Wage Act of 2021. The increase would also bring 900,000 people out of poverty. 

There are other studies that show in cities where the minimum wage was increased to more than $10 an hour there was either a small loss of jobs or an increase. 

What happens next?

There are currently two courses of action to increase the federal minimum wage. As previously mentioned, the economic relief package passed by the Senate on Feb. 5 is currently in the House of Representatives. Committees are continuing working on legislation that will be voted on, and if approved, sent back to the Senate for a vote and then to the president for his signature. 

If for some reason that bill fails to include a minimum wage increase, the second course of action is a standalone bill. Before both chambers of Congress approved the budget reconciliation for Biden’s package, House and Senate Democrats introduced the Raise the Wage Act of 2021, which would begin annual increases until 2025. 

There is a third course of action, and it’s from the Republicans. Sen. Mitt Romney, a Republican from Utah, and Sen. Tom Cotton, a Republican from Arkansas, proposed their own minimum wage bill. The two senators did not reveal all the details yet, but they did say that the increase would come with a stipulation of preventing businesses from hiring illegal immigrants. 

For more information about bills in Washington aimed at bringing households more money, here’s how a proposal to expand the Child Tax Credit could send families a check every month for a year, and the latest stimulus check timeline, payment limits and qualifications.